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In recent months, the rise of nationalism has been associated with the return of xenophobia, anti-immigration sentiments, populism and far-right, neo-fascist conservatism. In consequence, nationalism has been much maligned and made the scapegoat for Brexit, the rise of Donald Trump, ‘Putinism’ and China’s intransigence on issues like Taiwan. Putin’s expansion towards the East, for example, has been construed in certain media circles as a revival of Eurasianism, a policy advocated by Russian thinkers from Prince Nikolay Trubetskoy and Lev Gumilev to Alexander Dugin. Certainly, Putin’s 2012 allusion to Gumilev’s passionarnost (the Russian equivalent of Ibn Khaldun’s ‘asabiyya) was taken to hint at a revival of Eurasianism.